Enontekiö, Finland, 8 -13 July 2002.

The 6th EAAE International Summer School took place in Enontekiö this July 2002 from 7th to 14th.

Enontekiö is a small village in Lapland, Finland, where it was possible to enjoy a week of Midnight Sun. The total number of participants at this school was about a hundred including instructors and student teachers. The participants were from 13 European countries (Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Russia, Spain and the UK) and also from Canada.

All of them spent a week, including nights which were used in order to take observations. They exchanged information on the field of Teaching Astronomy, spread over 2 General Lectures, 13 Workshops, 1 General Working Group, 1 Poster session and 1 Bazaar session and several Observations.

The theme of this Summer School was the "Midnight Sun and Midday Sun".

General Lectures

1. Listening to the Sun's Heartbit (Alvaro de Rújula, Switzerland).
2. The Sun and Stars in Yor Classroom (John Percy, Canada).

General Working Group

1. Astronomy Curricula in Europe.


1. Aurora Borealis - Measuring the Magnetic Field (Irma Hannula, Finland).
2. Building Simple Sundials (Felisbela Martins - Rosa M. Ros, Portugal-Spain).
3. Luminosity and temperature of the Sun (Rainer Gaitzsch, Germany).
4. Measuring the Diameter of the Sun (Werner Warland, Germany).
5. Measuring the Distance to the Cat's Eye Nebula (Arntraud Bacher, Austria).
6. Models of the Movement of the Sun and Earth (Rupert Gesenberger, Netherlands).
7. Observing Sunset (Ederlinda Viñuales, Spain).
8. Photographing the Sun (Sakari Ekko, Finland).
9. Stellar Evolution and the Periodic Table of Element (Alexandre Costa, Portugal).
10. Studying the Sun and Stars Spectra (Francis Berthomieu, France).
11. Sunrise ans Sunset Positions Change Every Day (Rosa M. Ros, Spain).
12. The Rotation of the Sun (Roland Boninsegna, Belgium).
13. The Sun Above and Below the Local Horizon (Leonarda Fucili, Italy).


1. An Astronomical Approach to Teaching About Distances.
2. Astronomy and the Austrian Curriculum of Physics.
3. Astronomy in Austrian Schoolbooks.
4. Assessing "Astronomy at the 3rd Millennium dawn".
5. How to Promote the Building of a School Observatory?
6. Perspectives of Astronomical Concepts in Portuguese Curricula.
7. Results of the ESO Educational Questionnaire.
8. On Day in the Sun... For One Year About the Sun.
9. The "ABC" of the Universe.
10. The Opinion of Students About Astronomy in School.
11. Teaching of Astronomy in Portugal.
12. Tracking Sunspots With the Sunspotter Telescope.
13. Using a Graphical Calculator as a Sundial.

Observational Resources

1. Midnight Eratosthenes - A Variation of an Old Measurement.
2. The Rotation of the Sun.

In order to promote the active participation by all the teachers and professors through personal contributions several common activities were organised: common discussions for General Working Groups, poster and bazaar sessions and a book and astronomical didactic material exhibition. The Proceedings of the conference included all the activities carried out. All of these papers appeared in English and one of the two other official languages of the Summer School. This year, as well as English, the official languages were Finnish (as host country) and German because is a language well known by a large number of participants.

Dr. John Percy, from the Toronto University, presented the General Lecture of the opening session and Dr. Alvaro de Rújula, from the CERN, presented the General Lecture in the closing session. A group of 12 instructor members of EAAE produced the prior list of activities during the meeting. The majority of them are members of Summer School's WG-EAAE: Arntraud Bacher, Francis Berthomieu, Roland Boninsegna, Alex Costa, Rainer Gaitzsch, Rupert Gesenberger, Leonarda Fucili, Irma Hannula, Felisbela Martins, Rosa M. Ros, Eder Viñuales and Werner Warland. Also Sakari Ekko, non-member of WG3-EAAE, was invited to present workshops and lectures specially connected with the astronomical aspects of Lapland.

We spent the morning and the first part of the afternoon in Workshops, the second part of each afternoon in General Working groups, Poster sessions, Bazaars and on Friday we had a special session evaluating the activities carried out. The evenings were used for observation sessions (3 sessions in total) and book and didactic material exhibitions. The General lectures took place at the opening and the closing session. Thursday was spent on a trip to visit a fjord in Norway. On Saturday, after the closing session, we enjoyed a Lunch party hosted by the municipality of Enontekiö.

The 6th Summer School was held with the support of Helsinki University, LUMA and URSA Finnish Institutions. Both helped us to organise the course with the facilities that we needed.


Rosa M. Ros, Irma Hannula.


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